156 страниц. 2012 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Sales promotion is one of the four aspects of promotional mix. Sales promotion, a short term inducement offered to a consumer or trader has gained momentum as a promotional tool the world over. Sales promotion is used to reduce dissonance and in turn the risk involved in the purchase process of a consumer. The risk could be financial, functional, social or psychological. Sales promotion can be used for shaping new behavior as well as reinforcing existing behavior. Tougher market conditions and competition has forced managers to make frequent use of sales promotion tools. However, efficiency and effectiveness of promotional tools need to be tested. It is against this back drop that the present project endeavors to test the efficiency and effectiveness of Iran Khordo of Iran and Tata Motors of India based on AIDA model.