124 страниц. 2011 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing South Africa still very young in its democracy has undergone numerous changes, both in terms of government and its economy. The new government with its challenge of righting the wrongs that apartheid left behind has bought about sweeping policy changes. Amongst these changes, saw new strategies in government’s expenditure regarding infrastructure development. In addition, to address the transformation issue of improving representation, job opportunities and income amongst the previously disadvantage people, the government bought about the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) and the Affirmative Action (AA) policies. These changes have arguably had more of a negative impact than a positive one, especially concerning civil engineering professionals in both the private and public sector.