180 страниц. 2011 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing The present book is a good source for those who are interested in economic development, sustainable development and the role of duality and socio-economic differences among various regions of a country.Decreasing socio-economic dualities is significant in intranational and international levels since it will prevent poverty and inequalities. Moreover, it will prevent promotion of extravagancy against governments, countries and more developed areas. This book tries to explain effective indices and factors in sustainable development. Furthermore, some common ranking systems as well as differences among provinces in Iran in six year interval are described in details. Indices of sustainable development are complex and qualitative that is why Fuzzy system was used to identify and rank socio-economic dualities.