56 страниц. 2013 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Objective treatment outcome measures of many medical, and dental therapies are difficult to obtain because the detailed results of treatment are frequently not well documented. Fortunately, orthodontics is somewhat unique in that Orthodontists record the result of their treatment with a variety of diagnostic records that include study casts, photographs, radiographs and measures that evaluate the important elements of treatment outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to use the PAR index to assess the orthodontic treatment outcomes in a group of 50 cases treated by residents in the Orthodontic Department at the University at Buffalo.