112 страниц. 2013 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Torque has been termed a forbidden and dangerous force by many operators, however with proper understanding and with a systematic, technical approach, torque is not difficult to accomplish. Proper bucco-lingual inclination of both posterior and anterior teeth is considered essential for providing stability and proper occlusal relationship in orthodontic treatment. The operator's ability to control torque properly will mean the difference between an artistically treated case that has all the esthetic beauty desired in the finished denture and an ordinary tooth-straightening accomplishment that contains very few of these desirable features. A definite technique for the application of torque must be developed as well as an understanding of the forces which torque creates. Hence, this book explains the various torquing mechanisms used in different mechanotherapy which includes edgewise, pre-adjusted edgewise, begg mechanotherapy , lingual orthodontics, tip-edge etc.