72 страниц. 2012 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Cigarette smoking has long been associated with a variety of oral conditions including periodontal diseases. Experimental evidence accumulated over the last two decades has indicated that cigarette smoking is a true risk factor for periodontitis. Smokers have both increased prevalence and more severe extent of periodontal disease compared to non-smokers . Tobacco and some of its volatile and non-volatile components have been found to affect human gingival fibroblasts. Among the multiple volatile components some reactive aldehydes are thought to have a prominent cytopathic effect resulting in a dose dependent human gingival fibroblast inhibition of cell adhesion related to morphological alteration of the cytoskeletal structure.