128 страниц. 2013 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Researchers have agreed that skeletal maturity is closely related to the craniofacial growth, and bones of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae are very reliable parameters in assessing it. The complete hand wrist radiograph involves 30 bones and assessment of these stages is one elaborate task which needs time and experience and also involves increased radiation exposure therefore putting a question mark on ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, since this is very important mainly for children and young adults who have proliferating cells in crucial organs e.g. thyroid gland, bone marrow and salivary gland. This book is a comparative study to assess the radiographic evaluation of stages of cervical vertebrae and hand wrist radiograph to determine whether cervical vertebrae an be used as a reliable biological marker.