88 страниц. 2014 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Root apex is the most complex region. Therapeutically, it is a highly challenging zone, and prognostically an important and unfortunately most obscure and unclear area. Therefore, for effective and efficient management during endodontic therapy, an endodontist should have a thorough knowledge of the anatomical variations and mechanical challenges involved in the treatment of apical third.The variations in the morphology and the technical challenges that are involved in the treatment of the apical third appear infinite.