88 страниц. 2014 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Fixed Functional appliances have been used since the nineteenth century. By using functional appliances in conjunction with fixed appliances and extra-oral forces, best possible results for a patient can be accomplished with less possibility of problems and greater long-term stability, a stability that depends on the balance of teeth, bone and muscle achieved during the treatment. An update review on Fixed Functional Appliances and philosophy behind their modus operandi is presented in this book. Various appliances are discussed with illustrations. This book will provide Clinical Orthodontists with Secrets of Manipulation and Construction of various Fixed Functional Appliances. An updated review on this subject is presented for benefit of postgraduate students also.