160 страниц. 2012 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing An increasing need has been recognized in modern orthodontics for courses of treatment and devices that do not depend on patient cooperation. Because no single method works for all patients in all situation, various molar distalizing appliances have been introduced since the 1980s, and recently, the Frog appliance. Although these intraoral devices require minimal patient collaboration, they have unfavorable side effects, including different degrees of anchorage loss, mesial tipping of premolars, maxillary first molar tipping, posterior rotation of the mandibular plane, proclination of the incisors, and lip protrusion.