116 страниц. 2012 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the Gold Standard treatment modality for the treatment of cholelithiasis.But some factors may play part and lead to conversion to the open surgery! Distorted anatomy at Calots triangle and Haemorrhage that can not be controlled, are important contributory factors causing this un-planned conversion. This thesis is an important matter which discusses the details of gall bladder stones, their presentation, differt modes of treatment and the laparoscopic chlecystectomy! differnt factors leading to conversion are also discussed in details! this shall be an important and easy to understand knowledge to medical students, interns & residents.