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Chronic Psychological Stress in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus   Bipradas Roy,Abul Kalam Azad and Mahbub E. Sobhani

Chronic Psychological Stress in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

80 страниц. 2012 год.
LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Prolonged stress has long been shown to have major effects on the development of both type of diabetes mellitus, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by the immune system attacking self-antigens. There is a failure or breakdown in immunological tolerance to allow this to happen. Prolonged physical or emotional stress can activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to induce production of the stress hormone glucocorticoid, causing abrupt thymus involution and result in escape of autoreactive T- cells. Though regulatory T-cells (Treg) are present in the circulation, they are unable to suppress the autoreative T-cells from initiating the destruction of ?-cells and the subsequent development of Type 1 diabetes. Stress also causes metabolic disturbances, including altered hepatic glucose metabolism, increased peripheral insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Glucocorticoid is the potential contributor to the chronic hyperglycemia that...
 
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