60 страниц. 2012 год. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Is there a difference between auditory and visual expectancy violation in dogs? This research aims at finding an answer for the same. The study was conducted on 20 domestic dogs. Four tasks, two visual and two auditory, were formed by the researcher by referring to previous studies done. Number of studies on expectancy violation are few in number and specifically on dogs are very very few. This study attempts to measure expectancy violation using both visual and auditory stimuli and to compare the results obtained using these two to find out whether there is a difference between expectancy violation for visual stimuli and auditory stimuli. As researches in this area are few further studies need to be conducted to support the findings of this study. Similar researches can be conducted on human beings to understand the differences between visual and auditory processing in a better manner.